In recent years, the public has become increasingly aware of the presence of harmful chemicals in our environment. Many people express concerns about pesticides and other foreign substances in food, contaminants in drinking water, and toxic pollutants in the air.
Others believe these concerns are exaggerated or unwarranted. How can we determine which of these potential hazards really deserve attention? How do we, as a society, decide where to focus our efforts and resources to control these hazards? When we hear about toxic threats that affect us personally, such as the discovery of industrial waste buried in our neighbourhood or near our children’s school, how concerned should we be?
Health risk assessment is a scientific tool designed to help answer these questions. Government departments rely on risk assessments to help them determine which potential hazards are the most significant.
Risk assessments can also guide regulators in abating environmental hazards. Members of the public who learn the basics of risk assessment can improve their understanding of both real and perceived environmental hazards, and they can work more effectively with decision makers on solutions to environmental problems.
Chemicals can be either beneficial or harmful, depending on a number of factors, such as the amounts to which we are exposed. Low levels of some substances may be necessary for good health, but higher levels may be harmful. Health risk assessments are used to determine if a particular chemical poses a significant risk to human health and, if so, under what circumstances. Could exposure to specific chemical cause significant health problems? How much of the chemical would someone have to be exposed to before it would be dangerous? How serious could the health risks be? What activities might put people at increased risk?
If it were possible to prevent all human exposure to all hazardous chemicals, there would be no need for risk assessment. However, the total removal of harmful pollutants from the environment is often infeasible or impossible, and many naturally occurring substances also pose health risks. Risk assessment helps scientists and regulators identify serious health hazards and determine realistic goals for reducing exposure to toxics so that there is no significant health threat to the public.
The term “health risk assessment” is often misinterpreted. People sometimes think that a risk assessment will tell them whether a current health problem or symptom was caused by exposure to a chemical. This is not the case. Scientists who are searching for links between chemical exposures and health problems in a community may conduct an epidemiologic study. These studies typically include a survey of health problems in a community and a comparison of health problems in that community with those in other cities, communities, or the population as a whole.
The four-step process of risk assessment
In the first step, hazard identification, scientists determine the types of health problems a chemical could cause by reviewing studies of its effects in humans and laboratory animals. Depending on the chemical, these health effects may include short-term ailments, such as headaches; nausea; and eye, nose, and throat irritation; or chronic diseases, such as cancer. Effects on sensitive populations, such as pregnant women and their developing foetuses, the elderly, or those with health problems (including those with weakened immune systems), must also be considered.
In exposure assessment, scientists attempt to determine how long people were exposed to a chemical; how much of the chemical they were exposed to; whether the exposure was continuous or intermittent; and how people were exposed—through eating, drinking water and other liquids, breathing, or skin contact.
In dose-response assessment, scientists evaluate the information obtained during the hazard identification step to estimate the amount of a chemical that is likely to result in a particular health effect in humans.
An established principle in toxicology is that “the dose makes the poison.” For example, a commonplace chemical like table salt is harmless in small quantities, but it can cause illness in large doses. Similarly, hydrochloric acid, a hazardous chemical, is produced naturally in our stomachs but can be quite harmful if taken in large doses.
In the risk characterisation step, scientists analyse the information developed during the exposure and dose response assessments to describe the resulting health risks that are expected to occur in the exposed population. This information is presented in different ways for cancer and non-cancer health effects.
Purpose of health risk assessments
Risk managers rely on risk assessments when making regulatory decisions, such as setting drinking water standards, or developing plans to clean up hazardous waste sites. Risk managers are responsible for protecting human health, but they must also consider public acceptance, as well as technological, economic, social, and political factors, when arriving at their decisions. For example, they may need to consider how much it would cost to remove a contaminant from drinking water supplies or how seriously the loss of jobs would affect a community if a factory were to close due to the challenge of meeting regulatory requirements that are set at the most stringent level.
Health risk assessments can help risk managers weigh the benefits and costs of various alternatives for reducing exposure to chemicals. For example, a health risk assessment of a hazardous waste site could help determine whether placing a clay cap over the waste to prevent exposure would offer the same health protection as the more costly option of removing the waste from the site.
One of the most difficult questions of risk management is: How much risk is acceptable? While it would be ideal to completely eliminate all exposure to hazardous chemicals, it is usually not possible or feasible to remove all traces of a chemical once it has been released into the environment. The goal of most regulators is to reduce the health risks associated with exposure to hazardous pollutants to a negligibly low level.